Alcohol is a common part of our daily lives and plays an important role in human social activities. However, there are many interactions between ethanol, the main component of alcohol, and certain medications. In this article, we will focus on clinically used sobriety medications, alcohol reducers and abstinence medications.
A. Sobriety drugs
Naloxone sublingual tablets
Pharmacology: Naloxone is an opioid receptor-specific antagonist, which has antagonistic effects on four opioid receptor subtypes (μ-receptor, δ-receptor, κ-receptor, б-receptor) and has a sobering effect on alcohol poisoning in animals. It is mainly used clinically to relieve acute ethanol intoxication and respiratory depression caused by opioid overdose. It is worth noting that although naloxone can sober up intoxicated patients, it does not accelerate the metabolism of ethanol in the liver, nor does it have a hepatoprotective effect. For a list of common liver medications, please click on Common Liver Medications.
Adverse drug reactions: Diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, elevated blood pressure, tachycardia, acute withdrawal syndrome: restlessness, shaking, etc. are common.
Contraindications to drug combination: Combination with opioids, such as morphine, fentanyl, pethidine, oxycodone, codeine, tincture of opium, etc., is prohibited.
- Drugs to reduce alcohol dependence
Pharmacology: Nalmefene is an opioid receptor antagonist and a 6-methylene analogue of naltrexone. Nalmefene is approved by the FDA to reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients at high risk of drinking. 18mg of nalmefene should be taken orally daily as needed, preferably 1-2 hours before drinking, or as soon as possible if the patient has already started drinking; the maximum daily dose is 18mg.
Adverse drug reactions: fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, hypertension, etc. are common.
Contraindications to drug combination: No relevant information is available at this time.
Known drugs that prohibit alcohol consumption during medication
These drugs include metronidazole (also known as methotrexate), tinidazole, furazolidone (also known as dysentery) and most cephalosporins. They inhibit the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which blocks the metabolism of ethanol. If you drink alcohol while taking these medications, you may experience gastrointestinal dysfunction, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flushing and headache, which are known as sulfuric reactions to alcohol withdrawal. Note that the drugs not mentioned do not mean that you can drink as much as you want while taking them.